1. A prospective experimental comparative study on the clinical effects of calculus dissolution based oral rinse in gingivitis patients




Study Abstract


This six month double blind clinical study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of calculus/tartar dissolution based oral rinse (Periogen) as an adjunct to toothbrushing in gingivitis patients for long-term effects on new supragingival calculus formation. After undergoing a professional dental prophylaxis, 60 gingivitis subjects with a moderate rate of calculus formation were stratified and randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control group (Toothbrushing with regular dentifrice) and experimental group (Toothbrushing with regular dentifrice along with Periogen mouthrinse twice daily). All subjects in both the groups were assessed with gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and new calculus deposition levels using the Volpe-Manhold Index (VMI) after 3 and 6 months. Statistical analysis found that the experimental group (Toothbrushing with Periogen mouthrinse) demonstrated statistically significantly lower VMI scores (p = 0.001) than control group (Toothbrushing only). In experiment test group A, there was decline in VMI score from 3 to 6 months by 23.12% as compared to group B where there was continuous increase in VMI scores from 3 to 6 months by 22.16%. Periogen containing tetrapotassium pyrophosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate as the anticalculus agent provides a clinically relevant reduction in calculus formation in subjects with a moderate rate of such formation.  Full Study:  Click Here to read full study.


Study Outline: Click Here for graphical review.



2. Periogen Oral Rinse Study to Determine the Effect of Periodontal Disease




Study Abstract


Aim and purpose: The cause of periodontal disease is bacterial film known as plaque. Bleeding upon probing (BUP) is usually the first signed of periodontal disease. The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of Periogen oral rinse on plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), BUP and calculus after 90 days of daily Periogen use. Materials and method: A total of 53 systemically healthy subjects enrolled and randomly assigned in this double blinded and placebo- controlled clinical trial. At baseline, and at 90th day, PI, BUP, PD and photographs were taken and recorded. Participants were instructed to rinse with the assigned oral rinse twice daily using a water flosser. BANA (Benzoyl-DLArginie NaphthyAMide) chair side periodontal test were performed to detect presence of oral bacteria in plaque. Results: PI, BUP and PD in Periogen oral rinse group had more significant improvement as compared to placebo group after 90 day used of the product. However, visible calculi were not much significant difference between groups especially true for subjects who have Calculi Bridge for many years. Overall improvement in PI, BUP, PPD were seen in Periogen group as compared to placebo group. Summary and conclusions: After using for 90 days, plaque index, bleeding upon probing, and periodontal pocket depth were reduced more in Periogen oral rinse group compared to the placebo. However, no significant difference was found between groups. In conclusion, Periogen oral rinse is significantly better in reducing periodontal disease as compared to just using water flosser alone.



3. The effect of Periogen solution on dental calculus In-vitro – A pilot study




Study Abstract


Purpose: Calculus can accommodate on teeth and prosthetic restorations when the patient’s oral hygiene is poor. Hardened calculus cannot be removed by patients, it needs professional cleaning using ultrasonic scaler or hand instrument. Solutions dissolving and preventing accumulation of dental calculus may help to keep dentures clean. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of Periogen on dental calculus in vitro.Materials and methods: Calculus were collected via scaling from patients during a routine dental check-up. The samples were stored in carbamide peroxide solution (5%) for 24 hours, then rinsed and stored in distillated water. First the Ca2+ content of the calculus was determined by photometric method (Moorehead,1974) after treating with cc. hydrochloric acid solution for one hour. The calculus samples were put in Periogen solution, prepared according to manufacturer’s instruction, for 16 hours, then crushed and put in Periogen solution with the same concentrate for 4.5 hours.The Ca2+ dissolved from calculus was measured using same photometric method. Results: Calculus samples contained 26mg/100mg Ca2+, which is similar to dentin (27-28 mg/100mg), and to enamel (36 mg/100mg). The Ca2+ dissolved from calculus after treating with cc. hydrochloric acid for 1 hour was considered 100%. Ca2+ dissolution was 1.5% after 16 hours (0.09%/h) and 5.45% (1.21%/h) for the next 4.5 hours after pulverizing the sample. This showed Periogen Ca2+ dissolution was 385 μg/100mg after 16 hours direct contact with the material. Conclusion: The experiment showed that pulverizing the previously hard calculus was done easily after soaking it in Periogen. The ability of Periogen to soften the calculus needs to be further investigated. The solution could help patients cleaning their removable dentures after overnight soaking in Periogen.



4. A Six-Month Clinical Study to Evaluate the Effects of Sodium Tripolyphosphate and Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphate Based Calculus Dissolution Oral Rinse in Patients with Zirconium Dioxide and Titanium Dental Implants




Study Abstract


Aim: To clinically evaluate the effects of a novel anti-calculus mouth rinse containing sodium tripolyphosphate and tetrapotassium pyrophosphate (Periogen, USA) on development of gingivitis and plaque around dental implants versus control over a period of six months. Material and methods: This was a randomized, 6 month, parallel groups, double blind, single center clinical trial. Forty subjects with present dental implants (22 zirconium dioxide and 20 titanium) were randomly assigned to one of two subgroups: control group (regular brushing) and test group (regular brushing followed by using the calculus dissolution based oral rinse). All subjects were assessed with gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and Volpe-Manhold calculus index (VMI) after 3 and 6 months. Results: Statistical analysis found that test group in both zirconium dioxide and titanium group demonstrated statistically significant lower GI, PI and VMI scores. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that calculus dissolution based Periogen® mouthrinse provided clinically significant reduction in calculus formation in subjects with zirconium dioxide and titanium dental implants when used twice daily for 6 months as an adjunct to toothbrushing.



5. Anti-Plaque And Antimicrobial Efficiency Of PERIOGEN® Mouthwash In Patients Affected From Peri-Implantitis, Gingivitis And Periodontally Healthy Subjects.




The idea of employing a chemical agent that would act in a manner identical to that of a toothbrush and remove bacteria from the tooth surface is an attractive proposition. Despite the principle nature of the toothpaste vehicle, most chemical plaque-control agents have been evaluated and later formulated in the mouthrinse vehicle. The current studies aimed to investigate the persistence of antimicrobial action and plaque inhibitory properties of a new oral alcohol free rinse by comparison with positive control, chlorhexidine 0.12%, and placebo control, physiologic saline solution, rinses. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by saliva samples collected during the 3-days of usage.  The results indicate that this new oral rinse have equivalent plaque inhibitory action to chlorhexidine as a rinse. Similar to chlorhexidine, the plaque inhibitory action of the rinses appears to be derived from a persistence of antimicrobial action in the mouth. Furthermore we reported no side effects during the study, with the additional benefit of no alcohol presence in the rinse solution.




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